Total phosphorus (TP) and iron (Fe) were determined by spectrometric method (UV-1700, Pharmaspec, Shimadzu) at an absorbance of 880 and 515 nm, respectively. Xue Yan. Search: Add your article Home. Euclidean interval pattern and ward linkage were applied, while potentially toxic element concentrations were standardized using Z-score. Two principal components that explained 80.8% of total variance were extracted at eigenvalue > 1 in wet season, as given in Table 5. This project was supported by Sino-Africa Joint Research Center (Number: SAJC201601), Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Sciences of China, (Number: NSFC 31361140360). The Programme is Integrated River Basin Based Development. To apply for water tenders Kenya, you need to fulfil the following requirements: The net worth of the firm or the individual applying for the tender should be positive. High concentration of Al, Fe and Mn has been recorded in other water bodies in Kenya. As the theme of this year 2nd -9th of August states ‘Saving Ewaso Ngiro-Promorting Cohesion and Securing Livelihoods of Communities in the Ewaso Ecosystem’, we aim to raise awareness on the need to conserve Ewaso Nyiro River being the main source of water in the semi arid region of Kenya mainly occupied by the pastoralists. - 95.216.224.104. Kenya, Chemos, p 45, You L, Xie H, Wood-Sichra U, Guo Z, Wang L (2014) Irrigation potential and investment return in Kenya. Highest risk index recorded was 15.88 in livestock drinking water and was way below 50 that can pose mild risk, suggesting there was no risk posed to human and livestock. During the rainy season however, it is equally prone to flooding. Neurotoxicol 33:91–97, Khan S, JehanRehmanShahDin SMNSMTI (2013) Drinking water quality and human health risk in Charsadda district, Pakistan. Climate match to the contiguous United States was low overall, with small areas of medium match near Seattle, Washington; Los Angeles, California; and Brownsville, Texas. It has not been reported as introduced or established anywhere else in the world. We know of 8 airports near Ewaso Ng’iro, of which one … Peter Tajeu, vice chairman of the Olkiramatian conservancy in Narok County, some 130 km south of Nairobi, said the Ewaso Nyiro River is a lifeline for both wild animals and livestock. The plentiful wildlife that roams the reserve relies on the Ewaso Nyiro River. The Mid Ewaso WRUA is an important group linking the upper Ewaso Nyiro watershed with the lower Ewaso Nyiro river area. The highest concentration of Mn was detected in site 7 where water had been contaminated with oil and sites 11 and 15 where motorbikes were being cleaned in the river. Nitrate and Mn were the only pollutants in clusters C and D, respectively. It is a catchment for crucial rivers such as the Ewaso Nyiro and the Mara rivers, whose volumes have been in decline, largely due to deforestation. Buffalo Springs covers an area of approximately 131sq km and Shaba covers an area of approximately 239sq km. National Cancer Control Strategy 2017–2022, Muzerengi C (2013) Enrichment and geoaccumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cd and Cr in soils near New Union Gold Mine, Limpopo Province of South Africa. Source: Travel Warning Kenya. Eighty-seven percent and 67% of all sampled sites had more than 0.2 mg/L of Al in wet and dry seasons, respectively. 1, 15 samples for each season. The Ewaso Nyiro River borders the reserve to the south and separates Samburu from its sister park—Buffalo Springs National Reserve. The ER values are grouped into six categories as shown in Table 1. Twenty-seven and 40% of sampled sites in dry and wet seasons, respectively, had more than 0.3 mg/L concentration of Fe that is recommended by USEPA in drinking water. Film Television show Game Sport Science Hobby Travel Technology Brand Outer space Cinematography Photography Music Literature Theatre History Transport Visual arts … This is the homeland of the Samburu people who were drawn here by the Ewaso Nyiro River which provided a reliable water source for their cattle. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Water resources in the upper reach of the basin have been under immense pressure resulting in intermittent flow of Ewaso Nyiro below Archers Post [20]. Lake Olbolosat was the only sampling site with detectable Pb and also recorded the highest concentration of Zn. The use of polluted water for livestock and irrigation purposes is unsafe due to bioaccumulation and biomagnification effect in the food chain. ENSDA is in the process of KG and JO collected samples, while SN prepared the manuscript. Puloh mangrove estuary Malaysia. volume 3, Article number: 148 (2021) Climate Drought Ewaso Nyiro River Hyenas. The forest, which plays an important role in regulating and filtering the inflow to the river, is under threat from logging and land clearance for farming. Water Res Mant 27:1501–1515, Gordon B, Callan P, Vickers C (2008) WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. The Mid Ewaso WRUA is an important group linking the upper Ewaso Nyiro watershed with the lower Ewaso Nyiro river area. Other land uses include, livestock, wildlife, tourism, … 2 [43]. Njuguna, S.M., Githaiga, K.B., Onyango, J.A. Large predators such as the lion, leopard and cheetah are an important attraction (Kamunyak the miracle lioness that adopted the baby oryx is a resident in the reserve). Other significant correlations were between Al–TP, Fe–TP, B–Cu, Cu–Fe, Zn–Fe, Zn–Al, Cr–Al, Cr–Co and Al–Fe. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. For years now, experts have been puzzled by something about River Mutara in Laikipia County. High concentration of As, Hg, Ni, Cu and Cd was detected in lakes Bogoria and Elementaita [48]. The PLI which is an integrated tool for determining pollution of a certain group of pollutants (metals) was also applied, as indicated in Eq. Contaminated water causes over 5 million annual deaths worldwide [36]. In addition, there are “men with catapults” who ensure monkeys and baboons do not disturb guests within the premises. The snow covered Mount Kenya, which is seen clearly on most … However, irrigation water Mn contamination factor was > 6 and was therefore very contaminated. But somewhere between the source and end at Ewaso Nyiro… Kenya is a case in point. Ewso Nyiro supports the livelihoods of communities, livestock and wildlife in the dry Laikipia, Samburu, … Palaeozoic and quaternary sediment that is widespread in Kenya is a major source of Zn, Cu, Al and Fe [11]. Ewaso Ng'iro River The river's name is derived from the local community's language. Ewaso Nyiro River,in Samburu National Park Thereserve is also popular with a minimum of 900 elephants. P.O. 5) The Ewaso Nyiro North River area (210,226 Km2) comprises the northern part of K enya and drains the northern slopes of the Aberdare ranges and Mt. The waters of this great river draw wildlife in great numbers to its banks, creating an oasis of green. Dry season had two principal components with components one and two contributing 71.9% and 14.7% of total variance, respectively. No need to register, buy now! Pollution load index was < 1 for human and livestock drinking and irrigation purposes in both dry and wet seasons, implying the water would be considered generally uncontaminated. Farming is thus the main stay of the economy of the forest adjacent communities around the ecosystem. HCA which is a cluster analysis technique is often coupled with PCA to confirm and validate observed relationships [47, 50]. Opposite KEBS offices TEL: +254-020- 2342438 TEL: +254-729- 255246 E-MAIL: info@lbdc.go.ke It is bordered to the south by Ewaso Nyiro River, which separates it from the Buffalo Springs National Reserve. Sampling was done 15 cm below water surface using precleaned one-liter polyethylene bottles. RG assisted in research permit acquisition. The river is a source of livelihood for residents of Isiolo, Samburu and Laikipia. Fortunately, CONTINUE READING. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21), while map was prepared using Google maps. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. Cluster A in wet season dendrogram was composed of Cu, Cr, Al and B. Opposite KEBS offices TEL: +254-020- 2342438 TEL: +254-729- 255246 E-MAIL: info@lbdc.go.ke Irrigation water polluted with heavy metals contaminates crops under cultivation and poses risk to human health. Santa Clara J Intern Law 1:177–196, Rahman MM, Islam MA, Bodrud-Doza M, Muhib MI, Zahid A, Shammi M, Kurasaki M (2018) Spatio-temporal assessment of groundwater quality and human health risk: a case study in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. … According to the brother, they agreed to catch a glimpse of river Ewaso Nyiro downstream where Thomson's Falls is located. In areas with adequate rainfall for agriculture, and vast areas are sparsely populated are! Seasons as indicated in Figs remain safe as there is an important linking! 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