Class characteristics – Measurable features of a specimen that indicate a restricted group source. The individual x is a man. The variety of physical evidence is virtually unlimited, as is the uniqueness of the crime. Give an example of an individual characteristic? Similarly, evidence that possesses individual characteristics may be referred to as individual evidence. The four types of evidence is physical evidence, documentary evidence, demonstrative evidence and testimony. Same color, same texture, same material, same size. Class evidence is the category for most evidence. If the class characteristics of the two prints are not in agreement, then the first print is automatically eliminated. Physical evidence may be used to establish an element of a crime such as the presence of an accelerant at the point of origin of a fire in a suspected arson. The large piece of glass fits exactly to the bottle; it is individual evidence. It can take on almost any form: as large as a building, as fl eeting as an odor, as small as a hair, or even submicroscopic, like DNA evidence. Workers: constituted the workers or the labor class. Such as bruise, diffused bite mark, a smoking ring or, a faint bite mark. Examples are fingerprints, handwriting, DNA patterns, and sometimes physical matches, such as a piece of broken glass that exactly fits to its mate (like a jigsaw puzzle piece). For example, given a box of gloves; each glove from that box will be the same. Class evidence is evidence associated with a group and not a single source. Examples of class evidence include blood type, fibers, and paint. Class characteristics are those characteristics that result from the manufacturing process, such as physical size, design, and mold characteristics. Types of deductive reasoning Law of detachment . This is called individual evidence. If you alter the compounds that are used to make glass, different types of glass can be made. Class characteristic – properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and not a single source. What are individual characteristics? individual differences from other (ingroup) persons. To use these Classes of Evidence, one must identify the Type of study, and then classify it according to the following table, e.g., Type = Reliability, Classification = Class 1-2. Physical Change: Only Changes the appearance but not the chemical component. In combination with other evidence in a case, it can demonstrate that a limited number of people had all of the characteristics associated with evidence left by a perpetrator. If evidence is determined to possess class characteristics it may serve as a mechanism to reduce the number of suspects, but it cannot be directly connected to one person or source. Class characteristic - properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and not a single source. Firearms evidence is similar to the types of characteristics of fingerprints. List the common types of physical evidence B. Characteristics of Social Stratification. Introduction to Physical Evidence I. Pre-class activities A. Physical evidence is generally much more What is the difference between a chemical property and a physical property? Both: They both invlove changes in the state of matter. Guns account for many of the violent crimes today, but the crime scene and firearms evidence can reveal the … Individual characteristics are properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with an extremely high degree of certainty. Class II: This pattern of injury referred to as a single arch bite or the partial bite mark as it has some individual and some class characteristics. Middle class and working class refer to two groups of people who are separated in the social hierarchy due to the nature of their jobs, education, values, lifestyles, etc. Class evidence is material in a criminal investigation that can be linked with a group of people, but not a specific individual. Physical evidence usually involves objects found at the scene of a crime. Class vs. If so, then reading the following content might be of help. Forensic scientists classify evidence in different ways and have specific ways of dealing with it. Characteristics of Glass. Measurable characteristics of matter may be categorized as either chemical or physical properties. The value of hair evidence is related to the variability of hair characteristics between individuals in the population, which can be visualized through the use of comparison microscopy. Learning Objectives-Nature of Physical Evidence A. The following are characteristics that are noticible when a physical change is happening. ... it is possible to distinguish one type of glass from another based on the different chemical and physical properties. CLASS AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC EVIDENCE Class: a group of objects or persons with characteristic physical evidence common to it Examples include soil and hair Individual characteristics can be identified as having originated with a particular person or source Class, however, still is defined based on the ownership of crucial resources (economic, or political) and decides the status of an individual or a group. Working class and middle class are terms that are used frequently when discussing politics, economics and socio-economic conditions in … Physical evidence is any object or material that is relevant in a crime; also known as indirect ... items that share properties or characteristics ... the ability of evidence to prove something that is material to a crime . If this is the case, another known print may be compared to the unknown print. Individual characteristics are properties associated with a common source to a high degree of certainty. It can link the criminal to the crime scene by the vari­ Examination of some physical evidence is conducted by making impressions in plaster, taking images of marks, or lifting the fingerprints from objects encountered. Thus, while the class characteristics may be identical on bullets fired by two different weapons, the individual characteristics will be different. Physical evidence can be any material or object (see Table 2.1). Explain the difference between Identification vs. Evidence with class characteristics help narrow the ability to identify an object or person to fewer possibilities and can also be used to exclude an object or person with absolute certainty. The conclusion (Q) is deduced from this argument and its hypothesis: P → Q (conditional statement) P (hypothesis is proposed) Q (conclusion is deduced) These are only the some of the properties of glass. This type of evidence may be used to narrow down a list of possible suspects. One major distinction is between physical and biological evidence. For example, a branch of biology called virology studies viruses, which exhibit some of the characteristics of living entities but lack others. “The best evidence is anything that can be linked to a unique, single, specific source. They are distinct and an extremely useful form of forensic evidence. In addition to markings on the bullets, the magazine, firing pin, extractor, ejector, and breech face of a weapon may all impart class and individual markings to a cartridge case or primer. Examples of such evidence are blood types, individual fibers, microscopic examination of … In the context of this module, general rifling characteristics of the barrel of a firearm are the class characteristics of interest. They both have energy changes. Texture can be different depending on the physical change it has expierenced. All characteristics that are common to a group are called class characteristics. Physical Evidence A successful crime investigation depends upon the collection and analysis of various kinds of evidence . 4 Classifying Characteristics Physical evidence has two classifying characteristics, Individual Characteristics and Class Characteristics. It turns out that although viruses can attack living organisms, cause diseases, and even reproduce, they do not meet the criteria that biologists use to define life. They result from design factors and are therefore determined prior to manufacture. The focus in primary school should be on teaching the characteristics of good physical health and mental wellbeing. Class I: It includes diffused bite marks, which is having limited class characteristics and lacks individual characteristics. 1. Comparison C. Define Individual vs. Class Characteristics- Give examples Individual Evidence. Color Shape can change the substance but not its chemical composition. A single statement is made and a hypothesis (P) is proposed. Social identity refers to social categorizations of self and others, self-categories which define the individual in terms of his or her shared similarities with members of certain social categories in contrast to other social categories. This can affect the shape, color, and size. Physical evidence may consist of all sorts of prints such as fingerprints, footprints, handprints, tidemarks, cut marks, tool marks, etc. The answer has to do with chemical and physical changes of matter. In order to classify levels of evidence for the different categories listed above, it was necessary to derive the following table of “Classifications of Evidence”. 2. Both class and individual evidence have value; however, it typically takes considerably more class evidence (and time for collection and analysis) to have the same weight and significance as a single item of individual evidence. Dissolving, breaking and melting is included, but this change is easily reversible. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: The term physical evidence involves any physical entity that can furnish some degree of proof or disproof. Announcements and Assignments for next week II. First, the class characteristics are compared. Therefore, the individual x is mortal. 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